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文档位置:主页 > 国际税收协定库 > 美国 > 正文
  • 发文单位:中华财税网
  • 文    号:
  • 颁布日期:1997-02-17
  • 失效日期:
DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TECHNICAL EXPLANATION OF THE CONVENTION BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA (7)
  
DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TECHNICAL EXPLANATION OF THE CONVENTION BETWEEN
THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE REPUBLIC OF SOUTH AFRICA FOR THE
AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH
RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME AND CAPITAL GAINS (7)

             ARTICLE 14
         Independent Personal Services
  The Convention deals in separate articles with different classes of
income from personal services. Article 14 deals with the general class of
income from independent personal services and Article 15 deals with the
general class of income from dependent personal services. Articles
16 through 20 provide exceptions and additions to these general rules for
directors' fees (Article 16); performance income of entertainers and
sportsmen (Article 17); pensions in respect of personal service income,
social security benefits, annuities, alimony, and child support payments
(Article 18); government service salaries and pensions (Article 19); and
certain income of students and trainees (Article 20).
  Article 14 provides the general rule that an individual who is a
resident of a Contracting State and who derives income from performing
professional services or other activities of an independent character will
be taxable on that income only in his State of residence. The income,
however, may be taxed in the other Contracting State if the services are
performed there and the income is attributable to a fixed base that is
regularly available to the individual in that other State for the purpose
of performing his services.
  There is an additional rule in Article 14, which is not in the U.S. or
OECD Models. Under this provision, if an individual who is a resident of
one Contracting State is present in the other Contracting State for a
period or periods aggregating more than 183 days in a 12-month period
beginning or ending in the fiscal year concerned, that individual is
treated as having a fixed base regularly available to him in that State.
This rule is consistent with the rule in subparagraph (k) of paragraph 2
of Article 5 (Permanent Establishment), which deems an enterprise that is
furnishing services to have a permanent establishment in the State where
the services are being furnished under similar circumstances. All income
that the individual derives from services performed in that State will be
attributed to that fixed base, if the fixed base is present because of the
application of the 183-day rule.
  The 183-day period in this Article is to be measured using the "days
of physical presence" method. Under this method, the days that are counted
include any day in which a part of the day is spent in the host country.
(Rev. Rul. 56-24, 1956-1 C.B. 851.) Thus, days that are counted include
the days of arrival and departure; weekends and holidays on which the
employee does not work but is present within the country; vacation days
spent in the country before, during or after the employment period, unless
the individual's presence before or after the employment can be shown to
be independent of his presence there for employment purposes; and time
during periods of sickness, training periods, strikes, etc., when the
individual is present but not working. If illness prevented the individual
from leaving the country in sufficient time to qualify for the benefit,
those days will not count. Also, any part of a day spent in the host
country while in transit between two points outside the host country is
not counted. These rules are consistent with the description of the
183-day period in paragraph 5 of the Commentary to Article 15 in the OECD
Model.
  Income derived by persons other than individuals or groups of
individuals from the performance of independent personal services is not
covered by Article 14. Such income generally would be business profits
taxable in accordance with Article 7 (Business Profits). Income derived by
employees of such persons generally would be taxable in accordance with
Article 15 (Dependent Personal Services).
  The term "fixed base" is not defined in the Convention, but its
meaning is understood to be similar, but not identical, to that of the
term "permanent establishment," as defined in Article 5 (Permanent
Establishment). The term "regularly available" also is not defined in the
Convention. Whether a fixed base is regularly available to a person will
be determined based on all the facts and circumstances. In general, the
term encompasses situations where a fixed base is at the disposal of the
individual whenever he performs services in that State. It is not necessary
that the individual regularly use the fixed base, only that the
fixed base be regularly available to him. For example, a U.S. resident
partner in a law firm would be considered to have a fixed base regularly
available to him in South Africa if the law firm had an office there that
was available to him whenever he wished to conduct business in South
Africa, regardless of how frequently he conducted business there. On the
other hand, an individual who had no office in South Africa and
occasionally rented a hotel room to serve as a temporary office would not
be considered to have a fixed base regularly available to him, so long as
he did not cross the 183-day threshold.
  The taxing right conferred by this Article with respect to income from
independent personal services can be more limited than that provided in
Article 7 for the taxation of business profits. In both Articles the
income of a resident of one Contracting State must be attributable to a
permanent establishment or fixed base in the other State in order for that
other State to have a taxing right. In Article 14 the income also must be
attributable to services performed in that other State, while Article 7
does not require that all of the income generating activities be performed
in the State where the permanent establishment is located.
  The term "professional services or other activities of an independent
character" is not defined. It clearly includes those activities listed in
paragraph 2 of Article 14 of the OECD Model, such as independent
scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities, as
well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers,
architects, dentists, and accountants. That list, however, is not
exhaustive. The term includes all personal services performed by an
individual for his own account, whether as a sole proprietor or a partner,
where he receives the income and bears the risk of loss arising from the
services.
  The taxation of income of an individual from those types of
independent services which are covered by Articles 16 through 20 is
governed by the provisions of those Articles. For example, taxation of the
income of a corporate director would be governed by Article 16 (Directors'
Fees) rather than Article 14.
  This Article applies to income derived by a partner resident in the
Contracting State that is attributable to personal services of an
independent character performed in the other State through a partnership
that has a fixed base in that other Contracting State. Income which may be
taxed under this Article includes all income attributable to the fixed
base in respect of the performance of the personal services carried on by
the partnership (whether by the partner himself, other partners in the
partnership, or by employees assisting the partners) and any income from
activities ancillary to the performance of those services (for example,
charges for facsimile services). Income that is not derived from the
performance of personal services and that is not ancillary thereto (for
example, rental income from subletting office space), will be governed by
other Articles of the Convention.
  The application of Article 14 to a service partnership may be
illustrated by the following example: a partnership formed in the
Contracting State has five partners (who agree to split profits equally),
four of whom are resident and perform personal services only in the
Contracting State at Office A, and one of whom performs personal services
from Office B, a fixed base in the other State. In this case, the four
partners of the partnership resident in the Contracting State may be taxed
in the other State in respect of their share of the income attributable to
the fixed base, Office B. The services giving rise to income which may be
attributed to the fixed base would include not only the services performed
by the one resident partner, but also, for example, if one of the four
other partners came to the other State and worked on an Office B matter
there, the income in respect of those services also. As noted above, this
would be the case regardless of whether the partner from the Contracting
State actually visited or used Office B when performing services in the
other State.
  Paragraph 7 of Article 7 (Business Profits) refers to Article 14. That
rule clarifies that income that is attributable to a permanent
establishment or a fixed base, but that is deferred and received after the
permanent establishment or fixed base no longer exists, may nevertheless
be taxed by the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base
was located. Thus, under Article 14, income derived by an individual U.S.
resident from services performed in South Africa and attributable to a
fixed base there may be taxed by South Africa even if the income is deferred
and received after there is no longer a fixed base available
to the resident in South Africa.
  This Article is understood to incorporate the principles of paragraph
3 of Article 7 into Article 14, although, unlike the U.S. Model, it is not
made explicit in this Convention. Thus, all relevant expenses must be
allowed as deductions in computing the net income from services subject to
tax in the Contracting State where the fixed base is located.

Relation to Other Articles
  If an individual resident of South Africa who is also a U.S. citizen
performs independent personal services in the United States, the United
States may, by virtue of the saving clause of paragraph 4 of Article 1
(General Scope) tax his income without regard to the restrictions of this
Article, subject to the special foreign tax credit rules of paragraph 2 of
Article 23 (Elimination of Double Taxation).
Paragraph 3
  Paragraph 3 contains a special rule applicable to remuneration for
services performed by a resident of a Contracting State as an employee
aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic. Such
remuneration may be taxed only in the State of residence of the employee
if the services are performed as a member of the complement of the ship or
aircraft.
  The "complement" includes the crew. In the case of a cruise ship, for
example, it may also include others, such as entertainers, lecturers,
etc., employed by the shipping company to serve on the ship throughout its
voyage. The use of the term "complement" is intended to clarify that a
person who exercises his employment as, for example, an insurance salesman
while aboard a ship or aircraft is not covered by this paragraph. This
paragraph is inapplicable to persons dealt within Article 14 (Independent
Personal Services).

Relation to Other Articles
  If a U.S. citizen who is resident in South Africa performs services as
an employee in the United States and meets the conditions of paragraph 2
for source country exemption, he nevertheless is taxable in the United
States by virtue of the saving clause of paragraph 4 of Article 1 (General
Scope), subject to the special foreign tax credit rule of paragraph 2 of
Article 23 (Elimination of Double Taxation).

              ARTICLE 15
          Dependent Personal Services
  Article 15 apportions taxing jurisdiction over remuneration derived by
a resident of a Contracting State as an employee between the States of
source and residence.
Paragraph 1
  The general rule of Article 15 is contained in paragraph 1.
Remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an employee
may be taxed by the State of residence, and the remuneration also may be
taxed by that other Contracting State to the extent derived from
employment exercised (i.e., services performed) in the other Contracting
State. Paragraph 1 also provides that the more specific rules of Articles
16 (Directors' Fees), 18 (Pensions and Annuities), and 19 (Government
Service) apply in the case of employment income described in one of these
articles. Thus, even though the State of source has a right to tax
employment income under Article 15, it may not have the right to tax that
income under the Convention if the income is described, e.g., in Article
18 and is not taxable in the State of source under the provisions of
that Article. Because the Article applies to "salaries, wages and other
remuneration," rather than to "other similar remuneration", as in the OECD
Model, it is clear that Article 15 applies to any form of compensation for
employment, including payments in kind.
  Consistent with section 864(c)(6), Article 15 also applies regardless
of the timing of actual payment for services. Thus, a bonus paid to a
resident of a Contracting State with respect to services performed in the
other Contracting State with respect to a particular taxable year
would be subject to Article 15 for that year even if it was paid after the
close of the year.Similarly, an annuity received for services performed in
a taxable year would be subject to Article 15 despite the fact that it was
paid in subsequent years. In either case, whether such payments were
taxable in the State where the employment was exercised would depend on
whether the tests of paragraph 2 were satisfied. Consequently, a person
who receives the right to a future payment in consideration for services
rendered in a Contracting State would be taxable in that State even if the
payment is received at a time when the recipient is a resident of the
other Contracting State.
Paragraph 2
  Paragraph 2 sets forth an exception to the general rule that
employment income may be taxed in the State where the employment is
exercised. Under paragraph 2, the State where the employment is exercised
may not tax the income from the employment if three conditions are
satisfied:
  (a) the individual is present in the State where the employment is
exercised for a period or periods not exceeding 183 days in any 12-month
period that begins or ends during the relevant fiscal year (i.e., the year
in which the services are performed);
  (b) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is
not a resident of the State where the employment is exercised; and
  (c) the remuneration is not borne as a deductible expense by a
permanent establishment or fixed base that the employer has in the State
where the employment is exercised. In order for the remuneration to be
exempt from tax in the source State, all three conditions must be
satisfied.
  The 183-day period in condition (a), like that in Article 14
(Independent Personal Services), is to be measured using the ?days of
physical presence" method. (See Explanation to Article 14 for a
description of this method.)
  Conditions (b) and (c) are intended to ensure that a Contracting State
will not be required to allow a deduction to the payor for compensation
paid and at the same time to exempt the employee on the amount received.
Accordingly, if a foreign person pays the salary of an employee who is
employed in the host State, but a host State corporation or permanent
establishment reimburses the payor with a payment that can be identified
as a reimbursement, neither condition (b) nor (c), as the case may be,
will be considered to have been fulfilled.
  The reference to remuneration "borne by" a permanent establishment or
fixed base is understood to encompass all expenses that economically are
incurred and not merely expenses that are currently deductible for tax
purposes. Accordingly, the expenses referred to include expenses that are
capitalizable as well as those that are currently deductible. Further,
salaries paid by residents that are exempt from income taxation may be
considered to be borne by a permanent establishment or fixed base
notwithstanding the fact that the expenses will be neither deductible,
depreciable, nor amortizable since the payor is exempt from tax.
Paragraph 3
  Paragraph 3 contains a special rule applicable to remuneration for
services performed by a resident of a Contracting State as an employee
aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic. Such
remuneration may be taxed only in the State of residence of the employee
if the services are performed as a member of the complement of the ship or
aircraft.The "complement" includes the crew. In the case of a cruise ship,
for example, it may also include others, such as entertainers, lecturers,
etc., employed by the shipping company to serve on the ship throughout its
voyage. The use of the term "complement" is intended to clarify that a
person who exercises his employment as, for example, an insurance
salesman while aboard a ship or aircraft is not covered by this paragraph.
This paragraph is inapplicable to persons dealt within Article 14
(Independent Personal Services).

Relation to Other Articles
  If a U.S. citizen who is resident in South Africa performs services as
an employee in the United States and meets the conditions of paragraph 2
for source country exemption, he nevertheless is taxable in the United
States by virtue of the saving clause of paragraph 4 ofArticle 1 (General
Scope), subject to the special foreign tax credit rule of paragraph 2 of
Article23 (Elimination of Double Taxation).              
             ARTICLE 16
            Directors' Fees
  This Article provides that a Contracting State may tax the fees and
other remuneration paid by a company that is a resident of that State for
services performed in that State by a resident of the other Contracting
State in his capacity as a director of the company. This rule is an
exception to the more general rules of Article 14 (Independent Personal
Services) and Article 15 (Dependent Personal Services). Thus, for example,
in determining whether a director's fee paid to a non-employee director is
subject to tax in the country of residence of the corporation, it is not
relevant to establish whether the fee is attributable to a fixed base in
that State.
  This Article is subject to the saving clause of paragraph 4 of Article
1 (General Scope). Thus, if a U.S. citizen who is a resident of South
Africa is a director of a U.S. corporation, the United States may tax his
full remuneration regardless of where he performs his services, subject
to the special foreign tax credit rule of paragraph 2 of Article 23
(Elimination of Double Taxation).

              ARTICLE 17
           Entertainers and Sportsmen
  This Article deals with the taxation in a Contracting State of
entertainers (i.e., performing artists) and sportsmen resident in the
other Contracting State from the performance of their services as such.
The Article applies both to the income of an entertainer or sportsman who
performs services on his own behalf and one who performs services on
behalf of another person, either as an employee of that person, or
pursuant to any other arrangement. The rules of this Article take
precedence, in some circumstances, over those of Articles 14 (Independent
Personal Services) and 15 (Dependent Personal Services).
  This Article applies only with respect to the income of performing
artists and sportsmen. Others involved in a performance or athletic
event, such as producers, directors, technicians, managers, coaches, etc.,
remain subject to the provisions of Articles 14 and 15. In addition,
except as provided in paragraph 2, income earned by legal persons is not
covered by Article 17.
Paragraph 1
  Paragraph 1 describes the circumstances in which a Contracting State
may tax the performance income of an entertainer or sportsman who is a
resident of the other Contracting State. Under the paragraph, income
derived by an individual resident of a Contracting State from activities
as an entertainer or sportsman exercised in the other Contracting State
may be taxed in that other State if the amount of the gross receipts
derived by the performer exceeds $7,500 (or its equivalent in South
African rand) for the taxable year. The $7,500 includes expenses
reimbursed to the individual or borne on his behalf. If the gross receipts
exceed $7,500, the full amount, not just the excess, may be taxed in the
State of performance.
  The OECD Model provides for taxation by the country of performance of
the remuneration of entertainers or sportsmen with no dollar or time
threshold. The United States introduces the dollar threshold test in its
treaties to distinguish between two groups of entertainers and athletes --
those who are paid relatively large sums of money for very short periods
of service, and who would, therefore, normally be exempt from host country
tax under the standard personal services income rules, and those who earn
relatively modest amounts and are, therefore, not easily distinguishable
from those who earn other types of personal service income. The United
States has entered a reservation to the OECD Model on this point.
  Tax may be imposed under paragraph 1 even if the performer would have
been exempt from tax under Articles 14 (Independent Personal Services) or
15 (Dependent Personal Services). On the other hand, if the performer
would be exempt from host-country tax under Article 17, but would be
taxable under either Article 14 or 15, tax may be imposed under either of
those Articles. Thus, for example, if a performer derives remuneration
from his activities in an independent capacity, and the remuneration is
not attributable to a fixed base, he may be taxed by the host State in
accordance with Article 17 if his remuneration exceeds $7,500 annually,
despite the fact that he generally would be exempt from host State
taxation under Article 14. However, a performer who receives less than the
$7,500 threshold amount and therefore is not taxable under Article 17,
nevertheless may be subject to tax in the host country under Articles 14
or 15 if the tests for host-country taxability under those Articles are
met. For example, if an entertainer who is an independent contractor earns
$5,000 of income in a State for the calendar year, but the income is
attributable to a fixed base regularly available to him in the State of
performance, that State may tax his income under Article 14.
  Since it frequently is not possible to know until year-end whether the
income an entertainer or sportsman derived from a performance in a
Contracting State will exceed $7,500, nothing in the Convention precludes
that Contracting State from withholding tax during the year and refunding
after the close of the year if the taxability threshold has not been met.
  As explained in paragraph 9 of the OECD Commentaries to Article 17,
Article 17 applies to all income connected with a performance by the
entertainer, such as appearance fees, award or prize money, and a share of
the gate receipts. Income derived from a Contracting State by a performer
who is a resident of the other Contracting State from other than actual
performance, such as royalties from record sales and payments for product
endorsements, is not covered by this Article, but by other articles of the
Convention, such as Article 12 (Royalties) or Article 14 (Independent
Personal Services). For example, if an entertainer receives royalty income
from the sale of live recordings, the royalty income would be exempt from
source country tax under Article 12, even if the performance was conducted
in the source country, although he could be taxed in the source country
with respect to income from the performance itself under this Article
if the dollar threshold is exceeded.
  In determining whether income falls under Article 17 or another
article, the controlling factor will be whether the income in question is
predominantly attributable to the performance itself or other activities
or property rights. For instance, a fee paid to a performer for
endorsement of a performance in which the performer will participate would
be considered to be so closely associated with the performance itself that
it normally would fall within Article 17. Similarly, a sponsorship fee
paid by a business in return for the right to attach its name to the
performance would be so closely associated with the performance that it
would fall under Article 17 as well. As indicated in paragraph 9 of the
Commentaries to Article 17 of the OECD Model, a cancellation fee would not
be considered to fall within Article 17 but would be dealt with under
Article 7, 14 or 15.
  As indicated in paragraph 4 of the Commentaries to Article 17 of the
OECD Model, where an individual fulfills a dual role as performer and
non-performer (such as a player-coach or an actor director), but his role
in one of the two capacities is negligible, the predominant character of
the individual's activities should control the characterization of those
activities. In other cases there should be an apportionment between the
performance-related compensation and other compensation.
  Consistently with Article 15 (Dependent Personal Services), Article 17
also applies regardless of the timing of actual payment for services.
Thus, a bonus paid to a resident of a Contracting State with respect to a
performance in the other Contracting State with respect to a particular
taxable year would be subject to Article 17 for that year even if it was
paid after the close of the year.

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